The Final Solution in Riga

The  Final Solution  in Riga
Author: Andrej Angrick
Publsiher: Berghahn Books
Total Pages: 530
Release: 2012
Genre: History
ISBN: 0857456016

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Ghetto, forced labor camp, concentration camp: All of the elements of the National Socialists’ policies of annihilation were to be found in Riga. This first analysis of the Riga ghetto and the nearby camps of Salaspils and Jungfernhof addresses all aspects of German occupation policy during the Second World War. Drawing upon a broad array of sources that includes previously inaccessible Soviet archives, postwar criminal investigations, and trial records of alleged perpetrators, and the records of the Society of Survivors of the Riga Ghetto, the authors have produced an in-depth study of the Riga ghetto that never loses sight of the Latvian capital’s place within the overall design of Nazi policy and the all-of-Europe dimension of the Holocaust.

The Origins of the Final Solution

The Origins of the Final Solution
Author: Christopher Browning
Publsiher: Random House
Total Pages: 640
Release: 2014-12-04
Genre: History
ISBN: 1448165865

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The Origins of the Final Solution is the most detailed, careful, and comprehensive analysis to date of the descent of the Nazi persecution of the Jews into mass murder: the Holocaust. Arguing that genocide was not a preconceived plan but rather a discovered possibility, Christopher Browning explains how Hitler's decision to murder the Jews en masse emerged in stages and by a process of elimination that gradually foreclosed plans for their expulsion from Europe. Only in the interval between late September and late October 1941 did the desire to "remove" the Jews intersect with the discovery of acceptable means of killing them on a large scale and with the euphoria of expected victory in Russia, all of which followed on from two years of 'race war' and 'racial imperialism' in eastern Europe that prepared 'ordinary Germans' for this fateful task.

Journey Into Terror

Journey Into Terror
Author: Gertrude Schneider
Publsiher: Ardent Media
Total Pages: 262
Release: 1979
Genre: Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)
ISBN: 9780935764000

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There were 40,000 Jews in Riga in July 1941, when the Germans occupied Latvia. 33,000 of them were interned in the ghetto, and most of them (according to Schneider's estimate, 29,000) were killed in November-December 1941 in the Rumbuli forest. At the same time, numerous Jews from the Reich began to be deported to the ghetto of Riga. Ca. 20,000 German, Austrian, and Czech Jews arrived there during the winter of 1941-42; 800 of them survived the war, which is much greater than the numbers of German Jewish survivors from the ghettos of Łódź, Minsk, Kaunas, etc. Presents a story of life and death in the ghetto, focusing mainly on the "German" part of it; the story is largely based on testimonies of survivors, including Schneider's own (she was deported to the Riga ghetto from Vienna in February 1942). Many of the Jews were sent to the Jungfernhof camp near the city, rather than to the ghetto. Later, some were transferred from the ghetto to the Salaspils camp, and in August 1943, 7,874 Jews were sent from the ghetto to the Kaiserwald camp. The rest of the ghetto was liquidated in October 1943, and ca. 60 people were left to remove all traces of the former inhabitants, after which they were also transferred to Kaiserwald. Pp. 157-175 contain a list of survivors, and pp. 177-211 contain documents.

Hitler and the Final Solution

Hitler and the Final Solution
Author: Gerald Fleming
Publsiher: Univ of California Press
Total Pages: 300
Release: 1987-02-11
Genre: History
ISBN: 9780520060227

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Pp. vii-xxxiii contain Friedländer's introduction, which did not appear in the original German edition.

The Architect of Genocide Himmler and the Final Solution

The Architect of Genocide  Himmler and the Final Solution
Author: Richard Breitman
Publsiher: Plunkett Lake Press
Total Pages: 346
Release: 2022-09-05
Genre: History

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“[A] historian’s carefully researched work, based on a vast array of sources, documenting Hitler’s and Himmler’s responsibility for the murder of European Jewry. The book details the planning and the improvisations, but emphasizes the former and Himmler’s fanatical hatred of the Jewish race as the determinative cause of the Holocaust. Dealing with a charged controversy, Breitman makes a powerful case that by March 1941 ‘the Final Solution was just a matter of time — and timing,’ i.e., that the Holocaust was not a reflex of Hitler’s fear that the war in Russia could not be won. Breitman argues that the Wannsee Conference merely ratified the plans and instructed other agencies to cooperate. Breitman records the instances of resistance or opposition, but notes that of course the cooperation of thousands (many still alive and never tried) and the complicity or silence of millions were needed to carry out the murder... the book concludes that Himmler’s ‘brutality was more learned than instinctive or emotional’ — a methodical murderer impelled by racist dogma.” — Foreign Affairs “Breitman’s book is decisively important... [It] should serve for years to come as required reading for all who wish to make sense of the Holocaust.” — Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, The New Republic “Looking nothing like the Nordic ideal he advocated, Heinrich Himmler, chief of the Nazi SS, was short, flabby and balding — his dull, pedantic exterior disguising the caustic, cowardly, Machiavellian, immensely cruel master of deceit within. Breitman... presents compelling evidence that the extermination of Jews was an early goal of Himmler, a Bavarian and lapsed Catholic, and his boss Adolf Hitler. Drawing on previously untapped German records, as well as other source materials... this engrossing, detailed study constitutes a powerful refutation of revisionist scholars who claim that Hitler did not plan the Final Solution in advance but instead improvised it out of either military or political frustration.” — Publishers Weekly “A truly path-breaking book, one of the few that will have a lasting impact on historical research of the period. It shows both the primacy of Hitler as the motivating force in the mass murder, and the way in which his initiatives were accepted and internalized by the SS, on the basis of ideology.” — Holocaust and Genocide Studies “Chilling, expert history.” — Kirkus “[A]n eminently sensible and judicious study that could well serve as a textbook on the topic.” — The Historian “Breitman’s research [is] meticulous. Especially valuable are his novel insights into the full and frequent communication between Himmler and Hitler, who, it is known, seldom signed an order. Mr. Breitman presents his arguments cogently.” — Michael H. Kater, The New York Times “An absorbing, important book [that] addresses the sequence of steps leading to the Final Solution.” — Financial Times “As Breitman persuasively demonstrates, the situation kept changing, but Hitler was always in charge, and his goals always included ridding his empire of the Jews.” — Los Angeles Times “Breitman is on the hunt for smoking guns. He finds the goods littered throughout Himmler’s speeches and conversations... Breitman shows that people knew.” — Washington Post Book World “The book is chillingly good on the uses and abuses of language to mask atrocity.” — Newsday “Breitman’s study is an important addition to [the] literature [on the origins of the Nazi genocide], one that provides the most likely scenario and settles important disputed questions... Breitman’s study is a major step forward in our understanding of how the Nazis initiated mass murder.” — German Studies Review “[An] important book... I much admire this work, particularly for its resourceful combing of primary material... there is much to learn from this book about the Final Solution, its origins, its implementation, and its hate-inspired architect” — The American Historical Review

The Nazi Holocaust Part 3 The Final Solution

The Nazi Holocaust  Part 3  The  Final Solution
Author: Michael Robert Marrus
Publsiher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Total Pages: 350
Release: 2015-06-03
Genre: History
ISBN: 3110970481

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This edition is the first of its kind to offer a basic collection of facsimile, English language, historical articles on all aspects of the extermination of the European Jews. A total of 300 articles from 84 journals and collections allows the reader to gain an overview of this field. The edition both provides access to the immense, rich array of scholarly articles published after 1960 on the history of the Holocaust and encourages critical assessment of conflicting interpretations of these horrifying events. The series traces Nazi persecution of Jews before the implementation of the "Final Solution", demonstrates how the Germans coordinated anti-Jewish activities in conquered territories, and sheds light on the victims in concentration camps, ending with the liberation of the concentration camp victims and articles on the trials of war criminals. The publications covered originate from the years 1950 to 1987. Included are authors such as Jakob Katz, Saul Friedländer, Eberhard Jäckel, Bruno Bettelheim and Herbert A. Strauss.

The Final Solution

The Final Solution
Author: Donald Bloxham
Publsiher: Oxford University Press, USA
Total Pages: 424
Release: 2009-09-10
Genre: History
ISBN: 0199550336

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The first ever study to combine a detailed re-appraisal of the development of the genocide of Europe's Jews with full consideration of Nazi policies against other population groups and a comparative analysis of other genocides from the twentieth century.


Author: Peter Longerich
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 185
Release: 2022-01-03
Genre: History
ISBN: 0198834047

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"On 20 January 1942, fifteen high-ranking Nazi Party, government, and SS officials arrived for a meeting in a luxurious villa on the shores of the Wannsee, a lake on the western outskirts of Berlin. The elegance and grandeur of the villa, with its exquisite lakeside position and opulent interiors, stood in stark contrast, however, to the purpose of that meeting: to discuss the implementation of the 'final solution to the Jewish question'." -- Inside front book jacket flap.

The History of the Baltic States 2nd Edition

The History of the Baltic States  2nd Edition
Author: Kevin C. O'Connor Ph.D.
Publsiher: ABC-CLIO
Total Pages: 298
Release: 2015-06-04
Genre: History
ISBN: 1610699165

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Updating the popular 2003 first edition, this book is a narrative history of the Baltic States with particular focus on the events of the 20th and 21st centuries. • Spans the entire history of the region from the Middle Ages through the present day, with an emphasis on events from the mid-20th century to the present, especially the past ten years • Covers the region's "return to Europe" during the 1990s and early 2000s • Reflects the most recent historical research • Provides an objective, impartial reference that is ideal for high school students yet also useful for older students and general readers

Between Giants

Between Giants
Author: Prit Buttar
Publsiher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2013-05-20
Genre: History
ISBN: 147280287X

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During World War II, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia found themselves trapped between the giants of the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany. Over the course of the war these states were repeatedly occupied by different forces, and local government organizations and individuals were forced to choose between supporting the occupying forces or forming partisan units to resist their occupation. Devastated during the German invasion, these states then became the site of some of the most vicious fighting during the Soviet counter-attack and push towards Berlin. Many would be caught up in the bitter fighting in the region and, in particular, in the huge battles for the Courland Bridgehead during Operation Bagration, when hundreds of thousands of soldiers would fight and die in the last year of the war. By the end of the war, death and deportation had cost the Baltic States over 20 per cent of their total population and Soviet occupation was to see the iron curtain descend on the region for four decades. Using numerous first-hand accounts and detailed archival research, Prit Buttar weaves a magisterial account of the bitter fighting on the Eastern Front and the three small states whose fates were determined by the fortunes and misfortunes of war.

The Good Assassin

The Good Assassin
Author: Stephan Talty
Publsiher: Houghton Mifflin
Total Pages: 331
Release: 2020
ISBN: 1328613089

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"The untold story of a Latvian Nazi's gruesome crimes and an Israeli spy's epic journey to bring him to justice-a case that altered the fates of all ex-Nazis."--

Latvia in World War II

Latvia in World War II
Author: Valdis O. Lumans
Publsiher: Fordham Univ Press
Total Pages: 572
Release: 2006
Genre: Latvia
ISBN: 9780823226276

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Valdis Lumans provides an authoritative, balanced, and comprehensive account of one of the most complex, and conflicted, arenas of the Second World War. Struggling against both Germany and the Soviet Union, Latvia emerged as an independent nation state after the First World War. In 1940, the Soviets occupied neutral Latvia, deporting or executing more than 30,000 Latvians before the Nazis invaded in 1941 and installed a puppet regime. The Red Army expelled the Germans in 1944 and reincorporated Latvia as a Soviet Republic. By the end of the war, an estimated 180,000 Latvians fled to the West. The Soviets would deport at least another 100,000. Drawing on a wide range of sources--many brought together here for the first time--Lumans synthesizes political, military, social, economic, diplomatic, and cultural history. He moves carefully through traditional sources, many of them partisan, to scholarship emerging since the end of the Cold War, to confront such issues as political loyalties, military collaboration, resistance, capitulation, the Soviet occupation, anti-Semitism, and the Latvian role in the Holocaust.

Jewish Responses to Persecution

Jewish Responses to Persecution
Author: Jürgen Matthäus
Publsiher: AltaMira Press
Total Pages: 540
Release: 2013-04-18
Genre: History
ISBN: 0759122598

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Jewish Responses to Persecution: 1941–1942, Volume III sheds light on the personal and public lives of Jews during a period when Hitler’s triumph in Europe seemed assured, and the mass murder of millions had begun in earnest. The primary source material presented here makes this volume an essential research tool and curriculum companion.

The Final Solution

The Final Solution
Author: David Cesarani
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 328
Release: 2002-09-11
Genre: History
ISBN: 1134744218

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The Final Solution clarifies the key questions surrounding the attempt by the Nazis to exterminate the Jews. Drawing on important new research, these authoritative essays focus on the preconditions and antecedents for the 'Final Solution' and examine the immediate origins of the genocidal decision. Contributors also examine the responses of peoples and governments in Germany, occupied Europe, the USA and among Jews worldwide. The controversial conversions of this study challenge many of our accepted ideas about the period.

Blood in the Forest

Blood in the Forest
Author: Vincent Hunt
Publsiher: Helion and Company
Total Pages: 272
Release: 2017-05-04
Genre: History
ISBN: 1912866935

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With original research and interviews with survivors, a journalist reveals the brutal yet forgotten battles in Latvia during the final months of WWII. While the eyes of the world were on Hitler’s bunker, more than half a million men fought six cataclysmic battles in the fields and forests of Western Latvia known as the Courland Pocket. Just an hour from the capital Riga, German forces bolstered by Latvian Legionnaires were trapped with their backs to the Baltic. Forced into uniform by Nazi and Soviet occupiers, Latvian fought Latvian – sometimes brother against brother. Hundreds of thousands of men died for little territorial gain in unimaginable slaughter. When the Germans capitulated, thousands of Latvians continued a war against Soviet rule from the forests for years afterwards. An award-winning documentary journalist, Vincent Hunt travels through the modern landscape gathering eye-witness accounts, piecing together the stories of those who survived. He meets veterans who fought in the Latvian Legion, former partisans and a refugee who fled the Soviet advance to later become President, Vaira Vike-Freiberga. A survivor of the little-known concentration camp at Popervale details his escape from a death march and subsequent survival in the forests with a Soviet partisan group - and a German deserter. With detailed maps and expert contributions alongside rare newspaper archives, photographs from private collections and extracts from diaries translated from Latvian, German and Russian, Hunt assembles a ghastly picture of death and desperation in a nation both gripped by war and at war with itself.

The Origins of the Final Solution

The Origins of the Final Solution
Author: Christopher R. Browning
Publsiher: U of Nebraska Press
Total Pages: 660
Release: 2007-05-01
Genre: History
ISBN: 9780803203921

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This groundbreaking work is the most detailed, carefully researched, and comprehensive analysis of the evolution of Nazi policy from the persecution and "ethnic cleansing" of Jews in 1939 to the Final Solution of the Holocaust in 1942.

The Holocaust An Encyclopedia and Document Collection 4 volumes

The Holocaust  An Encyclopedia and Document Collection  4 volumes
Author: Paul R. Bartrop
Publsiher: ABC-CLIO
Total Pages: 1440
Release: 2017-09-15
Genre: History
ISBN: 1440840849

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This four-volume set provides reference entries, primary documents, and personal accounts from individuals who lived through the Holocaust that allow readers to better understand the cultural, political, and economic motivations that spurred the Final Solution. • Provides an easily readable encyclopedic collection of secondary source materials, such as reference entries, maps, and tables, that offer a breadth of content for understanding the Holocaust • Examines a broad range of themes relating to the Holocaust, enabling readers to consider important questions about the historical experience and its implications for today • Includes two volumes of primary source material that introduce users to the cultural, political, and economic motivations that spurred the Final Solution • Presents memoirs and personal narratives that showcase the experiences of survivors and resistors who lived through the chaos and horror of the Final Solution • Includes a comprehensive bibliography that serves as a gateway to further research